Elements Affecting Availability and Fixation of Potassium Soils


The next are the components affecting the supply and fixation of potassium soils;

1. Nature of Soil Colloids

The dominant clay species in soil determines the extent to which added fertilizer Ok might be fastened. Soils during which 1:1-type clays, resembling Kaolinite, are dominant repair little or no Ok.

Alternatively, soils during which 2:1-type clays, resembling vermiculite, montmorillonite, and fine-grained mica (illite), are dominant readily repair Ok in giant quantities.

The two:1 clays have a bigger unfavorable cost from the isomorphous substitution of A13+ for Si4+ of their silica tetrahedral layer thereby strongly binding the Ok+ ions.

2. Alternate Wetting and Drying

Alternate wetting and drying and freezing and thawing have been reported to contribute to the fixation of Ok into non-exchangeable type in addition to its final launch to the soil answer.

Throughout wetting, the two:1 increasing clay minerals enhance their interlayer areas and Ok+ ions might simply transfer into the areas.

On drying, the expanded layers collapse to entrap the Ok+ ions between the interlayer areas, thereby stopping the discharge of the potassium. The identical mechanism is believed to happen throughout freezing and thawing.

3. Affect of Lime

Software of lime normally leads to a rise in Ok-fixation and thus conserved in opposition to leaching losses.

Nonetheless, in soils the place the unfavorable cost is pH-dependent, liming can enormously cut back the extent of Ok within the soil answer. Excessive calcium ranges within the soil answer additionally cut back potassium uptake by the plant.

4. Frequency of Software

Frequent gentle purposes of Ok are discovered to be superior to heavier ones. Frequent gentle purposes are really helpful to keep away from luxurious consumption, leaching losses, and fixation of extra potassium.

5. Crop Removing

Crop removing of Ok is greater than all different nutrient parts besides nitrogen. Annual losses by crop removing might be as excessive as 200kg ha-1 of Ok, particularly in leguminous crops resembling soybean and cowpea.

The % restoration of Ok from fertilizer – Ok by crops on most soils is about 70% but when the clay content material is as much as 27%, particularly illite clay, restoration is barely about 30%.

Learn Additionally: Elements Affecting Solubility and Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils

6. Presence of different Nutrient Parts

Potassium is provided as cation Ok+ and it’s available to crops. Nonetheless, there may be competitors between NH+4 and Ok+ uptake and between Ca2+ and Ok+ as in calcareous soils the place uptake of Ok could also be suppressed.

Potassium Fertilizers

The principal Ok-fertilizer is KCI (potassium chloride) known as muriate of potash which is 60% Ok2O.

Second in significance is sulphate of potash (potassium sulphate, Ok2SO4) which is about 50% Ok2O. These two Ok-fertilizers are very soluble and are offered in crystal varieties.

Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) which is 40% Ok2O potassium- magnesium sulphate (20% Ok2O) one other Ok-fertilizer materials.

Frequent gentle purposes of potassium have benefits over heavy purposes in stopping luxurious consumption by sure vegetation, decreasing leaching losses, and minimizing fixation into unavailable varieties.

Potassium fertilizer use is but to succeed in the optimum in creating agriculture in comparison with developed agriculture of the world.

Soil incorporation of residues of leguminous crops such because the haulm of groundnut and soya bean is a vital apply for conserving soil potassium, particularly in savanna areas.

In conclusion, the first (Feldspars and micas) and secondary (clay) minerals are the primary sources of soil potassium. Regardless of its abundance in soils, potassium largely happens in an unavailable type for plant uptake. Therefore potassium might simply turn out to be poor the place crop calls for outweigh out there quantities in soil answer.

Losses of potassium are primarily via leaching particularly in areas of heavy rainfall, via crop removing the place the entire plant is harvested and eliminated away from the farmland, and by fixation into non-exchangeable varieties which, nevertheless, are sometimes launched to the exchangeable type.

Administration of soil potassium ought to emphasize small cut up purposes in order to keep away from luxurious consumption, leaching losses, and chloride toxicity.

Soil pH ought to be maintained at optimum (pH 6-6.5) whereas crop residue and manures ought to be returned by incorporation throughout cultivation.

Learn Additionally: Types and Capabilities of Potassium in Crops

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