Types and Features of Potassium in Vegetation


After nitrogen and phosphorus, potassium is the third most essential fertilizer nutrient, particularly within the extra humid climatic areas of southern Nigeria the place leaching of soluble potassium is most prevalent.

The three parts (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) known as main vitamins, are usually added to crops as N:P:Ok compound fertilizer to appropriate deficiencies.

Types and Features of Potassium in Vegetation

Quantity in Plant Tissue

Potassium accounts for 1 and three% of plant tissue (dry weight) on common however might attain as much as 12% in younger tissues.

Potassium happens in crops solely as a cellular soluble ion, Ok+, however doesn’t kind an integral a part of any particular compound in plant cells.

As a result of its excessive mobility, potassium is definitely translocated throughout plant membranes and its excessive focus helps in ionic steadiness and regulation in plant cells.

Features of Potassium in Plant

Among the many multi of assorted features of potassium in crops are cell division, formation and translocation of carbohydrates (sugar and starch), an activator of a number of enzymatic programs (over 60 enzymes are identified to require potassium for activation), regulation of osmosis or management of water within the plant, cell permeability, the resistance of some crops to sure illnesses and bugs assault, elevated power of stem to stop lodgings corresponding to maize, conversion of sugar to natural acids in roots, the regulation of N-uptake by roots thus stopping extreme elongation and lots of different features.

Potassium is understood to extend grain formation in cereal crops and likewise for tuber improvement in roots and tuber crops which reply extremely to beneficiant utility of potassium fertilizers.

Most crops have luxurious consumption of potassium. That’s, if extreme portions of potassium fertilizers are utilized to soil, the crops will take up potassium in extra of that required for optimum yields (vital degree).

Typically, the uptake curve is linear implying a direct relationship between soil portions of potassium and plant tissue potassium.

Potassium doesn’t enter into the natural construction in plant tissue as do calcium and magnesium in calcium pectate of center lamella and chlorophyll, respectively.

Learn Additionally: The Impact of pH of Soils on Micro-organisms

Potassium Deficiency and Toxicity Signs

On an annual foundation, agricultural crops take away between 100-300kg Ok ha-1. The quantity is taken up yearly by cereal crop yielding 5 to 10t ha-1 grain is between 200-300kg Ok ha-1 whereas crop of potato is also as much as 300kg Ok ha-1.

Potassium uptake by grass could possibly be very a lot increased than the figures quoted for frequent arable crops.

Though the full quantity of potassium in soil could also be a number of instances bigger than uptake, the potassium is probably not current within the soil within the out there kind to satisfy crop necessities. It is because the quantity out there for crop uptake depends upon the focus on the root floor and its replenishment.

Potassium in its kind taken up by the plant, that’s Ok+, is a cellular ingredient simply translocated to the youthful components of the crops each time there’s a shortfall within the quantity taken up by the crop. Due to this fact, deficiency signs first manifest within the older plant components.

There’s yellowing alongside the margin from leaf suggestions or apex of older leaves. Necrotic areas alongside leaf margins are attribute of Ok- deficiency signs in dicotyledon crops. There’s additionally browning of the guidelines of leaves all the way down to the bottom.

The acute shortfall in Ok-supply results in stunted development, poor root improvement, and a discount within the manufacturing of fruits and grains.

Fertilizer Ok is generally added to appropriate Ok deficiencies. Deficiencies happen in soils which might be low in micas, soils which might be low in clay (few change websites), and acid soils of pH 4.0 – 6.0 resulting from leaching by excessive rainfall.

Extra potassium has been discovered to induce the deficiency of magnesium (Mg) and cobalt (Co). Extra utility of Ok-fertilizer usually results in deficiency of different cations corresponding to Mg- deficiency in oil palm known as orange frond. This situation is known as ion antagonism in crops.

On the finish of the rising season, some Ok is handed again to the soil by way of the roots. Potassium strikes up the plant as salt by passive means in water resolution by way of the xylem vessels and strikes down as natural Ok by way of the phloem.

Soil Potassium

Though potassium is the third most essential and most used ingredient in fertilizers, it is among the parts whose ordinary chemical compounds are most soluble, but its soil mineral varieties (micas and orthoclase feldspar (KA1si3O8) are solely very slowly soluble and happen in comparatively unavailable varieties.

Soil whole potassium is between 1-3%, whereas 90-98% of soil whole Ok is present in main minerals –Ok- feldspar (Orthoclase and micas, muscovite, and Biotite). These minerals are immune to weathering and provide comparatively very small portions of Ok throughout a given breakdown of those main minerals as a result of presence of acid clay and the motion of different solvents corresponding to carbonated water.

A big portion of plant Ok+ comes from exchangeable and resolution Ok+, particularly in impartial and fundamental soils. In acid soils, exchangeable Ok+ is the most important supply. Potassium accumulates because the mica and feldspars climate and as Ok+ in plant residues is launched into the soil resolution.

Potassium could be misplaced in leaching waters and or entrapped between layers of hydrous mica (illite), smectite, and vermiculite. The interlayers of those 2:1 increasing clay mineral accommodates Ok+ and NH4+ ions to change into “mounted” into non-exchangeable potassium and ammonium ions.

Learn Additionally: Elements Affecting Solubility and Fixation of Phosphorus in Soils

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